Guest Posting on Musical Similarity

August 2, 2014 Leave a comment

Just this past week, I had a guest posting (Defining Musical Similarity: Genre and Beyond) put up on the brand-new blog for the Association for Information Science and Technology (ASIS&T). Given that blog’s intended scope, it’s of a different flavour from my usual postings here, which typically focus on specific instances of cross-genre similarity, both real and “imagined” (or, the ones I tend to perceive). The guest posting for ASIS&T is more closely related to my discipline, library and information science (LIS), and it provides an overview of my research. Although it isn’t really about specific music, anyone who’s interested in the idea of cross-genre similarity at an abstract level  might be interested in the posting’s encapsulation of the relevant research

More specifically, the posting discusses how genre has become the “best” mode for categorizing music in a variety of systems, with similar principles indirectly manifesting themselves within recommender systems. And that this continues to remain the case, despite:

  • the limitations of behaviour-based algorithms of recommender systems;
  • the lack of a definitive and immutable taxonomy of genres;
  • the individual ways we perceive similarity and preference;
  • the usage of similar musical principles across diverse genres;
  • the emergence of “omnivorous” listeners; and
  • trends in how one describes “legitimate” musical tastes (in other words, it isn’t all “classical and opera”).

Of course, relevant citations to all of the above points are given in the posting itself.

I also describe the scope of my proposed doctoral research, which relates to the ways in which people describe similarity as it pertains to music. It will be interesting to see the extent to which genre emerges as a factor, or if other factors also play a role as well. The posting concludes with potential applications and implications. Of course, I’m quite keen on the idea of recommendation (and even modes of categorization) that more actively breaks genre-based habits. That said, there are some potential issues with that as well. But that’s another guest posting…

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Beyond Hominids and Star Children: Strauss at 150

June 11, 2014 Leave a comment


Everyone has probably heard at least one piece by German composer Richard Strauss, born on this date in 1864. In fact, it is likely the same one. A progression of three notes that culminate in a suspenseful chord that remains unresolved, followed by a rhythmic thumping on the kettledrums. A similar theme appears again, and a third time, now evoking a sense of the sublime in a new theme. A ritual somehow sacred and profane, a worship of the sun, a feeling of the power of the universe.

Read more…

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Active vs. Passive Media: The False Dichotomy

October 12, 2013 Leave a comment

Author’s note: Published a month after Virtual Environments and Opera, this posting originally appeared on tl;dr (13 March 2012), a now-defunct blog that focused on videogames and information. Currently in its place is some generic webpage advertising various things. While it would’ve been nice to know from the administrators that they were no longer hosting the site, especially since it has been on my curriculum vitae, I had the foresight to save the text, and to bring it back for those who might be curious about this particular topic. Regular readers of this blog might notice a slightly different style of writing, as I probably would have made this at least twice as long on here, and would have gone into greater detail about musical similarities.

In the comments section of my previous posting [Virtual Environments and Opera on tl;dr, (not the one on this blog)], I went on a tirade about “active” vs. “passive” media. I won’t pontificate on media theorist Marshall McLuhan, but I will consider some possible reasons why this split remains a useful rhetorical tool for people who advocate the virtues of specific formats.

You’ve probably heard advocates of reading describe how television, videogames, and other visual media are passive because they’re “preprocessed” (like fast food and TV dinners). Books, on the other hand, force you to translate text into the five senses, and are therefore more nourishing (like organic vegetables, but only if they’re locally grown and in-season). These are the people who proudly proclaim that they haven’t watched television since 1972.

Steve Johnson’s pro-popular culture book Everything Bad Is Good for You, whose title derives from ironic observations made in the Woody Allen films Annie Hall and Sleeper, makes the opposite claim. Books are actually a passive medium, because the author generally tells you “what to do.” On the other hand, among other things, videogames enable you to create your own story and to develop such abilities as hand-eye coordination.

So, if books are a more active medium than videogames, except when videogames are a more active medium than books, where does that leave us? Definitions of “activity” and “passivity” are little more than moving targets. Nonetheless, advocates of the former can resort to tortuous arguments to “prove” a specific point, while sidestepping the differences in quality that exist within all media. Text materials may have traditionally held a venerated status, but I’m sure we can all think of television shows and videogames that are more substantive than certain books [about sparkly vampires].

[And now, for a tangentially relevant history and theatre lesson, along with bathroom humour, a most excellent clip from Wayne’s World, and musical references that tie together SWTOR (Star Wars: The Old Republic) and Blazing Saddles…]

For nearly a century, certain interests have hyped up the differences between audience activity and passivity. Some visual artists and playwrights have focused on fostering “active” audience engagement with their works, with the stated goal of bringing about political change. They set their works in opposition to those that, at least for them, aid in maintaining the status quo by ignoring harsh social realities. The latter may range from novels and films about sparkly vampires to “masterworks” of art, all of which are “passively” appreciated or (to get Marxist here) consumed as commodities.

One could trace these concerns at least as far back as World War I (1914-1918). For the first time in history, mechanized death obliterated millions of young men. After the war, economic sanctions imposed on a defeated Germany set the stage for the eventual rise of a Mephistophelian monster who promised to restore that country’s pride. With the so-called civilized world in shambles, as well as the recent victory of “the workers” in formerly Tsarist Russia, the time seemed ripe to question “bourgeois capitalist” values. One such value was the elevated status of “art for art’s sake,” which holds that great art rises above everyday concerns. To counter that ideal, the Dadaists used absurdism to confront viewers with the futility of simply appreciating art in a world gone mad. Marcel Duchamp’s Fountain (1917) is one of the most iconic examples.

Of more specific importance to this posting is the emergence of politically-committed theatre in the period after World War I. Although actors and spectators share the same space, they inhabit two separate realms: the auditorium and the stage. Some playwrights, including the German Marxist Bertolt Brecht, attempted to bridge that gap by taking advantage of live theatre’s relative intimacy. Brecht expressed the belief that it had the potential to dissolve the boundary between actors and spectators, and spur collective political activity. Brecht’s plays draw upon a number of techniques that fall under the broad term alienation, designed to remind spectators that they’re only watching a play [that makes an “important point”]. It’s supposed to prevent them from investing too much emotionally in the characters, usually the dregs of society in Brecht, and to pay more attention to the socio-political implications of the play. One of the best-known alienating techniques is “breaking the fourth wall,” where a character directly addresses the audience. Although they don’t possess the same readily-apparent political agenda as Brecht, the Annie Hall clip near the beginning of this posting and at least one scene from Wayne’s World are examples.

Ironically, it’s hard to escape the sense that live political theatre invests some of its potential transformative power in the notion of spectator passivity; it’s supposed to make you active… in a manner that conforms to the intentions of the author. Furthermore, like educational games whose developers forget elements like “fun” and “enjoyment,” politically-committed works can do too well with alienating their audiences through didactic heavy-handedness. Luckily for Brecht, he at least possessed a sardonic wit, and had composer Kurt Weill along to write delightfully dissolute songs for some of his plays. Similar songs include certain tunes heard in the Imperial cantinas of SWTOR, as well as Lili von Shtup’s I’m Tired in Blazing Saddles. (No stranger to Brecht himself, Mel Brooks even mentions the influence.) Weill himself shouldn’t be too obscure, though: for Brecht’s Threepenny Opera, he wrote the oft-covered Mackie Messer.

With so much at stake, is it any wonder that serious advocates of active media can have an unshakeable faith in its fine distinction from passive media? More recently, however, French philosopher Jacques Rancière has questioned such received wisdom. “The Emancipated Spectator,” based on a talk given by Rancière in 2004, addresses the agenda-based usage of the terms under discussion. His questions about the distinction, which focuses specifically on actors and spectators in live theatre, are relevant to any medium. As he asks at one point, “What is more interactive, more communitarian, about [live theatre] spectators than a mass of individuals watching the same television show at the same hour?” (Rancière 2011, p. 16)

Questioning the active/passive actor/spectator dichotomy is very relevant here. In fact, what Rancière says about television shows could extend to MMO games. You participate in the action in real time, albeit from a safe distance via your avatar. On the other hand, gamers might have a soft spot for books as well, despite what Johnson says about them. (In fact, I suspect that many of you reading this probably don’t fit the old stereotype of gamer “passivity,” sitting in your parents’ basement, mollified by pressing buttons and staring at shiny, eyes glazed over as you mindlessly munch on chips.) As much as I disagree with Johnson’s assessment of books, the antiquated stereotypes about gamers probably necessitated a rhetorical pushback against book worship. At the very least, it can get people to talk more seriously about the positive aspects of videogames, and (even more broadly) to move away from the compulsion to pit one medium against another.

In addition to the elitist aspect of spectator “passivity,” which Rancière deconstructs towards the end of his 2007 paper “The Misadventures of Critical Thought” (Rancière 2011, pp. 25-49), the term remains insufficient for describing how individuals actually engage with specific media on their own terms. Why can’t we just define “activity” as the complex array of emotional, intellectual, and physiological responses we have to all media, whether political or not, and leave passivity out of the equation?


Notions of “active” and “passive” media are driven by individuals with specific agendas. They advocate for specific media that they perceive as active, while discounting the importance of others identified as passive. Books and videogames are two media that have been juxtaposed against each other in this manner. In reality, they provide complementary modes of cognitive, intellectual, and emotional engagement, which varies among individuals.

Ding! You’ve leveled up! Please see your local librarian for training.

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Virtual Environments and Opera: What’s the Connection?

October 9, 2013 1 comment

Author’s note: Published on 14 February 2012, this posting originally appeared on tl;dr (derived from the techie colloquialism “too long, didn’t read”), a now-defunct blog that focused on video games and information. If you don’t believe me, here’s proof of its existence. Currently in its place is some generic webpage advertising various things. While it would’ve been nice to know from the tl;dr administrators that they were no longer hosting the site, especially since it has been on my curriculum vitae, I had the foresight to save it, and to bring it back for those who might be curious about this particular topic. Regular readers of this blog might notice a slightly different style of writing, as I probably would have made this at least twice as long on here, and would have gone into greater detail about musical similarities.

A few years ago, New Yorker music critic Alex Ross wrote a post on his blog about the performance of video game music at orchestra concerts. He included a trailer for a PBS special called Video Games Live, which features an orchestra playing music from video games. Orchestras strapped for cash in already economically dire times have used this strategy to appeal to a broader audience. The concert in the trailer provides an immersive experience, complete with visuals to remind the audience what the music is portraying. Speaking for myself, it dictates too much what one might be better off imagining. After all, the target audience is presumably well-versed in some of the action that occurs in various games, and they might prefer to reflect on personal memories and experiences; the times they defeated a particularly challenging boss, or bonding with comrades in an MMO environment.

As the trailer points out several times, the audience consists of young people who might not have dreamed of going to an orchestra concert. I agree in principle (if not with the execution featured in the clip) with the idea of video game music acting as a way to expand the musical interests of those who might otherwise remain unexposed to “classical music” Note that I say “expand the interests” instead of “improve the tastes,” because the latter is a loaded judgment. (I’ll spare you from a digression into the ideas of cultural theorists like Adorno and Bourdieu.) Also, I place classical music in scare quotes because it is a highly problematic term. As much as I love the music itself, I dislike the term for reasons that would constitute several essays. (Ross’ 2004 essay Listen to This does an exemplary take-down of the term, which he describes as a “tour de force of anti-hype.”)

Video games share a number of similarities with film, such as the accompaniment of music to pre-crafted sequences, as opposed to the stage-based experience of live opera. Furthermore, both forms may incorporate music from any genre; this brings into question the parameters of both film music and video game music. Since much of what appears in the Video Games Live trailer sounds firmly rooted in the “classical” realm, it brings to mind the ideal of the “total art work,” or Gesamtkunstwerk.

And now, for a brief lesson in opera history. To paraphrase Dante, I assure you that it relates to video games…

You’ve probably heard at least a few snippets from operas by German composer Richard Wagner (1813-1883), such as the ever-ubiquitous Bridal Chorus from Lohengrin, as well as Ride of the Valkyries from Die Walküre. Although he did not originate the term Gesamtkunstwerk, Wagner has become most commonly associated with it. He coined it to describe his aesthetic ideal, an “artwork of the future” that incorporates all art forms: design, literature, performance, and practically anything else you can imagine. The Festspielhaus (festival theatre) he had built in Bayreuth for the performance of his own “music dramas” aided in realizing this vision. The hidden orchestra pit was designed to compel audiences to focus on the stage, ensuring that their eyes wouldn’t wander to the musicians. Boston-based Unitarian minister and music critic John Sullivan Dwight referred to the intended effect as a “wall of sound,” a phrase recycled over 80 years later to describe the Wagnerian ambience that record producer Phil Spector wanted to achieve in his pop music recordings. Completed in 1876, the principles of Bayreuth presaged those that gradually emerged in cinema. Audiences have now become accustomed to watching premade “total artworks” in theatres with hidden sources of sound. A compilation of essays in Wagner and Cinema (2010) delves into these connections further.

A century after Wagner launched Bayreuth with his multi-part mythical epic Der Ring des Nibelungen (of which Die Walküre is a part), George Lucas brought home the connections between cinema and the “total artwork” with one of his own. Right down to a Wagner-influenced soundtrack by John Williams.

In some ways, video games are yet another extension of the aesthetic ideal of the Gesamtkunstwerk. The difference, of course, is that their audiences actively participate in guiding the action… at least insofar as designers allow them to do so. When George Lucas made the first Star Wars film, the video game experience was limited to things like Pong. Now, video games have become substantially more immersive, making them more and more similar to the theatrical ideas promulgated by Wagner. (By the way, how’s SWTOR going for you?) As more immersive “total artworks” emerge, and if gamers of all ages (a notion the video game concert clip sidesteps) can learn more about the complex genealogy of the music that accompanies the games they play, perhaps the process begun by Wagner will come full circle.

It is up to us whether future immersive gaming environments are as relatively benign as the holodeck, or as malignant as a self-centred and intolerant dystopia. We must remember that Wagnerian aesthetics has its own dark side as well, most infamously embodied in the idolization of the composer and his anti-Semitism by one of history’s most infamous monsters. Similar considerations could apply as well to increasingly dynamic information environments, with the promise of immersiveness connecting us with many configurations of various modes of information, or Balkanizing us into highly specialized clusters of users.

Still think that these ideas about the similarities between opera and video games (or, more specifically, Wagner and virtual reality) are a bit “out there?” Others are actually way ahead of me in that respect. An entire book and a related website have already considered them together.

[Below is a convention for tl;dr, which appeared at the end of each posting.]

The affinities between immersive virtual environments and opera are more powerful than you could possibly imagine. Wagner established the foundation, embodying both its light and dark sides.

Ding! You’ve leveled up! Please see your local librarian for training.

Verdi at 200: Composer of the Popular Imagination

October 8, 2013 Leave a comment

In the 1970s, a commercial for Coca Cola had a kid sharing a “Coke and a smile” with a football player by the name of “Mean Joe” Green.

Prior to that time, pianist and comedian Victor Borge had begun his shtick of poking fun of classical music and opera. One of his routines consisted of a series of malaprops, prior to his playing the “Cacamame” aria from an opera called “Rigor Mortis,” composed by someone else with the name “Joe Green.” Or rather, he told the audience that it was “Joe Green to you.”

The actual opera is Rigoletto, and the composer’s real name is Giuseppe Verdi (which sort of translates to Joe Green), whose 200th birthday is on 10 October. Along with Richard Wagner, whose own 200th birthday occurred in May, Verdi continues to maintain his position as one of the titans of opera. As well, he remains one of the longest-lived “major” composers, just making it into the 20th century before his passing at the age of 87 in 1901. A decade after the titanic Wagner’s passing, the 80-year-old Verdi composed the well-regarded autumnal opera Falstaff, based on Shakespeare’s Henry IV and Merry Wives of Windsor.

Admittedly, Verdi doesn’t resonate as much with me as other composers and musicians. Certainly not to the same degree as Wagner, so this posting won’t be quite as dense as others (or, like the one I wrote about Wagner, come in four parts). As well, he might not have had the same seismic influence on the broader culture as his German counterpart and contemporary. What distinguishes Verdi the most from Wagner, however, is his tendency to come across as more readily accessible. Related to this notion, one thing that’s interesting to me is a sentence in the introductory paragraph of the Wikipedia entry for the composer:

His works are frequently performed in opera houses throughout the world and, transcending the boundaries of the genre, some of his themes have long since taken root in popular culture…

For those of you who know of my interest in genre crossing, I swear on my mother’s urn that I didn’t write that sentence. Certainly, one cannot dispute the extent to which his works have appeared in various manifestations of the popular culture… or at least excerpts thereof. The Internet Movie Database entry on Verdi lists numerous television shows and films that feature his music. Despite his most recent film’s apparent allusions to Wagner, even Quentin Tarantino throws some Verdi into Django Unchained, in the form of the apocalyptic Dies Irae (God’s Wrath) from his Requiem.

The very first example listed in Wikipedia’s Verdi entry, however, comes from the previously-mentioned Rigoletto. La donna è mobile, which translates into something about the “fickleness of women,” is a light-hearted sounding piece, and is likely one of the reasons why it can easily be considered perfect for comedic film and television… never minding the opera’s tragic aspects. It even appears, along with some other Verdi pieces, in various versions of Grand Theft Auto.

I like much better other pieces by Verdi, which I picked up from hearing my mother play them many years ago (despite her antipathy towards “screeching” in opera). And on those, I can write a lot more comfortably; one a specific excerpt from his opera Nabucco (1842), and the other an entire opera.

Certainly, Verdi has historically captured the popular imagination in Italy, almost to a point where he emerged as a symbol of the Risorgimento… the resurgence of Italy, brought about by unification of Italian peoples, which to all intents and purposes occurred in 1861 with the installation of Vittorio Emanuele II as monarch. Interestingly, a rallying cry for the Risorgimento was Viva VERDI, or “Vittorio Emanuele Re [King] DItalia.” Adding fuel to Verdi’s symbolic value to Italian nationalism was the legend that formed around the very moving and stirring Va, pensiero (“Fly, thought, on golden wings…”), sung by Israelites exiled from their homeland by the opera Nabucco’s titular Babylonian king (known in English as Nebuchadnezzar). At the time Verdi wrote Nabucco, the Austro-Hungarian Empire occupied parts of what became present-day Italy. Presumably, the situation of exile portrayed in Nabucco resonated with Italian nationalists, and Va, pensiero became their theme. As with many such historical myths, however, this story has generally been debunked. Nonetheless, just the music on its own power can make the legend seem plausible. How could one not imagine Va, pensiero as an anthem of oppressed or exiled people seeking freedom and justice, at once mournful and hopeful?

It has, of course, appeared in films and television as well. In Godfather III, a small village band plays it during Michael Corleone’s return to the family homeland.

Another favourite, which my mother would play frequently, is La Traviata (“The Fallen Woman”), the supremely tragic story of Violetta Valéry, a courtesan who finds happiness and loses it due to social conventions, ultimately succumbing in the end to consumption… but not before reuniting with the man she loved, and who really loved her (despite his renouncement of her, due to a misunderstanding). Yeah, it’s that sad, and Verdi underscores the point quite well. Excerpts have appeared in numerous television series and films as well, perhaps among the more famous being Pretty Woman (with Julia Roberts as a modern day courtesan, who faces a more “fairy tale” ending than her predecessor)…

and (of all things) Twilight.

I haven’t seen it due to (1) word of mouth about its god-awfulness and (2) my seething rage that I didn’t write my own teen vampire novel in enough time; seriously… I even had an “Isobella,” whom I decided to make “Isadora” instead (as in the dancer Duncan). But, one would have to live under a rock not to know that sparkly Edward and the rest of the Cullen clan are undead bloodthirsty vampires. And being born not too long after Verdi died, one would imagine he was a potential victim of tuberculosis as well, and perhaps this was some kind of subtle allusion to that (and the coughing up of blood, etc.). But maybe I’m thinking of how I would’ve written it.

Anyhow, enough of my hack criticism… the opening several minutes is great in itself, from the melancholy prelude with its acknowledgement of the fragility of life (and of the protagonist) and how we try grasping at happiness to help us forget, to the carefree festivities being given at Violetta’s house to celebrate her recovery from a previous illness. The drinking song (Libiamo ne’ lieti calici), which appears in the first ten minutes, is a fairly well-known showstopper. Here’s the whole thing, in a fairly well-known “modern-style” production from Salzburg in 2005.

While Verdi’s music overall hasn’t insinuated itself as much into my psyche as that of other musicians, and my knowledge of Verdi is admittedly relatively slim compared to that possessed by numerous others (including opera fans and experts who gravitate towards his works), I would be remiss to not acknowledge the 200th anniversary of his birth with some kind of tribute. Perhaps I will someday make that deeper “connection” and delve a bit deeper into his works at some point, beyond the holding pattern of works that underlies this posting. But if you’ve stumbled upon this and know little about Verdi, perhaps something has piqued your interest, anyway. Perhaps one or more bits from the posting will start you on a journey to finding more works by him, and maybe even learn more about his legendary stature not only in world of opera, but within popular culture as well… whether as a symbol of Italian pride, or as music that somehow seems appropriate within numerous artifacts in the broader culture: from a shoot-em-up videogame, to a movie about sparkly vampires.

At any rate, libiamo to Verdi’s contributions!

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Still Seeking an Answer: The Unanswered Question, 40 Years Later

October 3, 2013 5 comments

Upon receiving a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1985, Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990) tried to downplay his strong association with classical music. Citing the 300th anniversaries of the births of such composers as Scarlatti, Handel, and “The” Bach, Bernstein mentioned that they wrote great music… and not-so-great music. And that there’s great and not-so-great music from all other genres and musicians as well, including Tina Turner, who performed after Bernstein’s admiring introduction of her.

Bernstein’s speech played with the superficial, and somehow still culturally pervasive, dichotomization of rock and classical, by suggesting that some of the former has greater cultural value, or was created with greater skill, than some of the latter. Regardless, these notions of “greatness” still constitute a contestable value judgment. But the central point is this: How could a “classical” musician, of all people, say that some rock is great, while some classical isn’t? Shouldn’t classical musicians and fans of classical music advocate ceaselessly for that genre, no matter what? Especially as a highly-specialized, perhaps even aging and dying, artform, for aging and dying people?

Actually, no. It seems self-limiting, and denies the rich diversity of wonderful music of all kinds, from various cultures and time periods. This is based on my personal experiences of serendipitously discovering different kinds of music over the years. As well, if one thinks more broadly, “rock” has been around for almost 60 years… at least as a neatly-commercialized phenomenon that “suddenly exploded” onto the U.S. cultural scene (never minding the richness of its origins and predecessors among numerous other kinds of music). Consequently, I suspect some of the grey heads occupying seats at opera and orchestral performances these days also enjoyed a good Elvis or Beatles tune back in their youth.

A Lifetime in Music

Certainly, Bernstein himself had a lifelong interest in various kinds of music. Even when the realms of classical and rock were readily pitted against each other as polar opposites. And even prior to the “sudden” emergence of rock itself. Bernstein’s senior thesis at Harvard, The Absorption of Race Elements into American Music (1939), examined the integration of jazz and Latin American elements into compositions by George Gershwin and Aaron Copland. Within a few decades, after Bernstein had achieved a fair amount of fame as a composer and conductor, he used the relatively new medium of television to discuss classical music. On the CBS series Omnibus, one of Bernstein’s specials focused on “The World of Jazz,” which probably seemed quite odd in the mid-1950s… never minding the already well-documented and long history of cross-pollination that had occurred between jazz and classical. Of course, it includes one of Bernstein’s own very jazzy pieces, Prelude, Fugue, and Riffs (1949).

With the “explosion” of rock onto the cultural scene, Bernstein integrated discussion of it into some of his Young People’s Concerts, primarily to make points about music that “the kids” would likely understand. In the clips collected below, Bernstein channels such acts as The Beatles and The Kinks:

He also appears prominently in an intriguing cultural artifact called Inside Pop – The Rock Revolution (1967), which features talking head clips of numerous popular musicians from the time. Aptly enough, the genre-smashing Frank Zappa makes an appearance as well, prophecying with his signature laconic bluntness that, “a lot of the kids that you see from time to time, and retch over, are going to be running your government for you.”

Over 45 years on, it can admittedly come across as a sort of “the kids are alright” reassurance, intended for middle- and upper-class parents fretting over the utter strangeness of their offspring’s tastes. Some might even criticize it as a domestication of the “primal” power of rock, or as a way of lending rock a level of unwanted “prestige” on a par of classical music. Or, as Joe Postove ponders in the comments section:

I wonder how the “hipsters” of those days felt about getting the official imprimatur of Leonard Bernstein? Were they glad to have this grand master of classical and semi-classical music give his thumbs up to much of the scene or did they consider this close up look at their music kind of “square man”?

Those are fair criticisms, I suppose, and perhaps even Bernstein would acknowledge them himself. As indicated in the opening of the special, Bernstein was also keenly aware of the amount of privilege he possessed. Wrestling with his stature as a prototypical “East Coast Liberal,” Bernstein refers to himself in the beginning as a “bourgeois family man” and member of the “establishment” (“I hate that word, and I don’t like to think of myself that way…”)… to all intents and purposes, supposedly the antitheses of rock and rebellion. And yet, the fact that a “classical” musician of Bernstein’s stature decided to advocate for rock seems quite amazing within the context of this particular time and place. But then, he had enough social capital to be able to do that, tied to his very open interest in different kinds of music. Certainly, he put this into practice within some of his own compositions, including the theatre works West Side Story (1957) and Mass (1971). And, perhaps the special just is, or we can view it as such from a distance of nearly a half-century. Whatever way it might have come across to “hipsters” at the time, or appears to modern viewers, it’s difficult to doubt that Bernstein’s heart was at least in the right place.

Perhaps, then, it comes as no surprise that Bernstein, balancing his position of prominence in relation to venerable musical institutions with a keen interest in different kinds of music, stated the following in his Lifetime Grammy acceptance speech nearly 20 years later:

I’m very happy tonight for music. And, I’ll be even happier, and maybe even ecstatic… if tonight can be a step toward… the ultimate marriage of all kinds of music because they are all one…


… what I’d just like to see happen, is for all the good music to get together.

“The Unanswered Question”

So far, this posting has somehow managed to avoid discussion of the primary topic. This “unanswered question,” which appears in the title. Nonetheless, it (or at least my understanding of it) has informed the scope of this posting all along. In fact, going even further, the “unanswered question” relates much more broadly to what I’ve been doing, both in numerous postings for this blog and in my doctoral research.

The Unanswered Question is the name of a series of six lectures Bernstein gave at Harvard in October and November of 1973, as Charles Eliot Norton Professor of Poetry. It’s also the name of a 1908 piece by American composer Charles Ives, which Bernstein analyzes as part of the fifth lecture, “The Twentieth Century Crisis.”

Bernstein sets out an ambitious goal. Near the beginning of the first installment, he lays out its interdisciplinarity, before the term became a ubiquitous phrase throughout academia. More specifically, Bernstein considers the potential of applying then-emerging ideas from linguistics (including those proposed by Noam Chomsky) to the study of music. Not unlike human speech, Bernstein postulates, music is a language. A form of expression, with certain shared traits among different cultural contexts. From this perspective, there exists the potential for unveiling universal rules for musical grammar as well.

Keeping in mind the intended broad audience of this blog, the gory details of this intricately-considered topic could constitute multiple postings in themselves, along with definitions of the various technical terms Bernstein employs from linguistics and music. Bernstein himself mentions throughout the lectures that he is skipping huge swaths of possible points of discussion as well, for the sake of relative brevity. With this understanding, his main goal is to underscore “universality,” by drawing connections (and perhaps even parallels) between the structures of spoken and musical expression. Broadly speaking, the series proceeds as follows:

Phonology (Lecture 1): Essential sound units and their potential monogenesis (common origins)

Syntax (Lesson 2): Structures that emerge from convergences of those sounds.

Semantics (Lectures 3-6): Synthesis of sounds and structures to yield meaning.

Admittedly, Bernstein’s postulations require very careful attention from viewers. They can be rather confusing at first glance, and (as some critics like Joseph Horowitz noted) perhaps not entirely convincing. After all, to what extent can one truly draw parallels between notes, bars, or whole compositions (whether songs, symphonies, operas, or whatever else) with syllables, words, sentences, paragraphs, or entire textual works (books, stories, etc.)? Horowitz notes that Bernstein himself drifts away from these kinds of considerations after a few lectures, and more or less returns to the enthusiastic, self-assured pedagogue of earlier televised specials. It’s possible that he had felt he had already laid the groundwork for this approach earlier on, and didn’t need to talk much about technical linguistic stuff in the later lectures. Whatever the case, as with many such intellectual exercises and speculations, they’re sufficiently compelling to merit further contemplation, and in continuing the dialogue about the nature of music. And, as Bernstein himself stated in the first lecture, he has the prerogative to be wrong. After all, how can one even begin to investigate an unprecedented or understudied topic without some false starts and miscalculations?

“Universality” in music is another potentially dubious point. More specifically, the idea that music can act as a “universal language.” One could certainly read a number of coded Euro-American assumptions into this notion. That said, Bernstein himself roundly dashes the idea of “music as universal language,” and even cites it as the main reason why his own personal interest in “universal musical grammar” had:

lain dormant for years. Paralyzed, I suppose, by that deadly cliché, ‘music is the universal language of mankind.’ After a thousand repetitions of that one, usually with the connotation ‘support your local symphony orchestra,’ the well-meant phrase becomes not only a cliché, but a misleading one.

What Bernstein has in mind is more subtle, as well as paradoxical. He cites in particular the work of the “new linguists,” whose ideas helped reignite his interest in examining the potential universality of musical grammar. Bernstein mentions that those involved in the study of one language need to examine and understand differences as well as similarities among them. More broadly, this notion ties in with developing rules that (ideally) apply to all languages.

But where did Bernstein get the idea to contemplate the prospect of universal musical grammar in the first place? Bernstein gives an anecdote near the beginning of the first lecture about a compelling personal experience from his student days at Harvard. Citing the keen interest he developed in Copland’s Piano Variations, Bernstein figured out that the piece’s first four notes also appear “in another order,” transposed, and/or in different keys within works by other classical composers (Bach, Stravinsky, and Ravel). Even more intriguing, considering the “very different” cultural context, is Bernstein’s additional perception of similarities between Copland’s Variations and an Indian piece:

And at that moment, a notion was born in my brain, that there must be some deep, primal reason why these discrete structures of the same four notes, should be at the very heart of such disparate musics as those of Bach, Copland, Stravinsky, Ravel, and the Uday Shankar Dance Company… From that time to this, the notion of a worldwide, inborn musical grammar has haunted me.

Sing, Memory

As mentioned earlier in this posting, Bernstein engaged in other activities over the years that followed his encounter with Copland’s Variations, considering similarities and cross-pollinations among musics that one could readily discern as being from different genres and traditions: his thesis topic, compositions that drew upon different musical styles, and serious consideration of the merits of “non-classical” music. Regardless of genre, regardless of cultural context, Bernstein discerned an innate *something*… perhaps a series of connections… among “very different” musics. We will likely never be able to prove this point, however… to answer the “unanswered question” definitively. Especially considering the sociocultural contexts of so-called “non-Western” musics (which all end up, at least in the “Western” world, lumped under that rather culturally chauvinistic category “international”), this assertion proves rather problematic. Still, the parallels seem more readily apparent within the context of genres that employ the same 12-note music scale. More readily associated with “the Western world,” even in a very loose sense. As Bigand and Poulin-Charronat mention:

This includes… Western art music… jazz, pop-rock music, reggae, and salsa. Pieces from these musical styles sound so different that it can be difficult to realize that they share some of the same features. The most basic is that they rest on a single set of 12 pitch classes (“Tonal Cognition” 2009, p. 59).

There exist numerous other similar features, or traits, beyond those associated with “Western” 12-note scale. But what, exactly, does “similar” mean… especially in considering the extent to which two pieces of music might be described as such? My cop-out answer is that it “depends.” That said, my vagueness is actually based on personal experience, as well as what I’ve read in literature from diverse fields on music. In discussing musical similarity, Cambouropoulos (2009) mentions that many previous studies tend to have poorly-defined conceptualizations of the idea, and he suggests that more empirical data could help with figuring out what exactly the term really encompasses. The music information retrieval (Downie 2003) and music psychology (Wedin 1972, Gabrielsson 2009) literatures about musical traits might provide some clues, though. Essentially, they encompass such things as key, pitch, tempo, melodic contours (the “shape” of music notation, or distances between musical pitches), chord progressions, etc., etc. Furthermore, similarity may derive from extra-musical traits as well; in other words, textual stuff… what the music’s “about,” lyrics, and the like.

More likely, however, what resonate with listeners are combinations of the above traits (Gabrielsson and Lindström 2010). In other words, we might not like a piece simply because it has a “slow” tempo. It might be the primary trait we want, but we might also like the way the melody, the complexity of orchestration, and the progression of chords create a feeling of tension and release; or perhaps what the piece is “about” in non-musical terms (whether explicitly, or based on personal associations); and so on. In terms of similarity, such combinations of traits might somehow invoke a chill of recognition; a present musical experience triggering musical (and even extra-musical) associations from the past. Or, put another way, drawing upon Snyder’s (2000) work on music and memory: we end up tapping into chunks of short-term memory, roughly a few seconds in length and constituting our overall individual musical experiences, when triggered by something we perceive as similar to another musical experience from our past.

And it can be made all the more chilling if such connections transcend the confines of genre. When, despite different genre conventions, the similarities stand out to a point where such categorization doesn’t matter, and makes for a surprising experience. For instance, when upon hearing the final bars of U2’s “No Line on the Horizon” for the first time, one might be put in mind of the “love” motif from Richard Strauss’ opera Salome… which may even trigger retroactively some vague notions of similarity between the opening bars of “No Line” and Strauss’ Four Last Songs.

Diverse Musics, Diverse Fields

At this point, we have gone beyond Bernstein and his search for a “universal musical grammar,” and into some personal musical indulgences. But not quite! My primary point is that, since Bernstein’s time, numerous fields have grown that can help inform further research into the ambitious question he examined 40 years ago. This includes music psychology, which has changed radically from the behaviouralist and experimental modes that dominated the field when Bernstein gave his talks. Music psychology has also expanded into real-life accounts of interactions with music (whatever one may think of the reliability of self-reports), as well as considerations of the sociocultural dimensions of music. As well, with a foundation in the ideas of Theodor W. Adorno (1903-1969), who would likely be considered an antithesis of Bernstein, critical musicology can help with further deconstructing and pondering music’s sociocultural roles. Certainly, various notions and assumptions of universality would be subject to scrutiny within that field.

Of course, aspects of this “unanswered question” can relate to library and information science (LIS), which is “my” field. In other words, how might the prospect of “universal musical grammar” affect how we think of such things as categorization practices (whether cataloguing, classification, or even tagging) and user needs… with implications for recommender systems (drawing upon the principles of readers’ advisory, what exactly do people look for in music). Over 30 years ago, LIS researcher Nicholas Belkin referred to questions as an “Anomalous State of Knowledge” (1982). The resulting acronym (ASK) is clever, but the phrase it represents also implies that questions might actually be statements that can lead to numerous answers, or perhaps raise yet more questions (or create more anomalous states of knowledge). Somehow, this seems apt in relation to the one Bernstein, well, asked… “U-ASK,” perhaps?


Forty years on, I’m not sure that we’ve gotten any closer to a definitive answer to Bernstein’s inquiry. And he likely never expected that we would. Nonetheless, since that time, various areas of study have emerged to aid in getting us a little closer to some kind of answer… likely emerging in the form of tantalizing fragments discovered serendipitously by music experts and lay listeners. Unfortunately, Bernstein is no longer around to act as our guide, or to look at the various literatures that have emerged to help with understanding more holistically the nature of music. But following his spirit, perhaps we can endeavour to keep asking the right questions, and to know a little better what might ultimately remain unknowable. Like music, such an aspiration is part of what keeps us alive; the impetus to keep asking good questions, to carry the torch that Bernstein left for us so many years ago… and that will hopefully continue to burn over the next 40 years, and beyond.

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On “Spooky” Music: Is The Truth Out There?

September 7, 2013 Leave a comment

Twenty years ago this month, Fox executives followed its likely Friday night hit The Adventures of Brisco County, Jr., with episodes of a filler series that they believed would quietly wither away after just a few months. The latter series was founded on a bizarre and implausible conceit, reeking of potential failure: two Federal Bureau of Investigation agents investigating very mysterious deaths and disappearances, whose explanations went beyond the mundane and could be accounted for by a number of seemingly unlikely phenomena, including ghosts, mutants, highly virulent microorganisms, cryptozoological beasts, and (last but not least) extraterrestrial visitors. All of these, along with shadowy government figures keeping it all hush-hush by any means necessary, challenged the two protagonists in their mutual search for the truth.

On the other hand, how could anyone not want to watch something with a commercial like the one below, promoting the show’s pilot episode?

After one season, Fox wished happy trails to the oddly-named Brisco County, Jr., due to low ratings (which, to be fair, did form a cult following of its own). Its sacrificial red-headed stepchild continued for another eight seasons. Within that timeframe, between 1993 and 2002, the adventures of skeptical FBI forensic pathologist Dana Scully (Gillian Anderson), along with the also oddly-named unorthodox profiler and “true believer” Fox Mulder (David Duchovny), had become a ubiquitous cultural phenomenon. Along with the inventive premise developed by series creator Chris Carter, as well as the chemistry between the two leads (despite Duchovny’s eventual weariness with the series), The X-Files reflected a new mal de siècle and undercurrents of millennialism that had come to the fore in the 1990s, the period between the end of the Cold War and the “War on Terror.” More broadly, its ideas and aesthetics filtered into subsequent series labelled science fiction, as well as more mundane crime procedurals.

While I was curious about The X-Files myself, given my own interest in various things “unexplainable” (or at least not readily categorizable), I didn’t start watching regularly until about halfway into the second season. Among other things, I find the slightly askew sense of the quotidian one of the show’s most appealing aspects; what lurks beneath the surface of apparent “normalcy?” Filming locations in and around Vancouver, standing in (with varying degrees of credibility) for various locations throughout the United States, effectively set this mood during the show’s first five seasons. Of course, there are some things I would’ve done differently in the overall story arc for greater dramatic impact, such as having Scully’s sister in at least a few more episodes to build greater emotional impact. But, hey, that’s what FanFiction is for!

As X-Files aficionados may know, Mulder acquired the derisive nickname “Spooky” from others in the FBI. This derived from his interest in the eponymous files, started by J. Edgar Hoover in the 1940s as a way of categorizing “unsolved” cases, on account of implausible explanations being the most likely ones. But what does the term mean? It seems suitable to look at definitions of words that share some affinities, as found in the Oxford English Dictionary. Here’s “horror,” which dates back to the 14th century:

A painful emotion compounded of loathing and fear; a shuddering with terror and repugnance; strong aversion mingled with dread; the feeling excited by something shocking or frightful. Also in weaker sense, intense dislike or repugnance. (The prevalent use at all times.)

A century later, “terror” emerged:

The state of being terrified or extremely frightened; intense fear or dread; an instance or feeling of this.

Spooky is much more recent, a colloquialism that dates back to 1854:

Of, relating to, or characteristic of spirits or the supernatural; frightening, eerie.

Certainly, the show has many moments of palpable horror and terror, as we witness victims meeting unusually macabre and mysterious fates. But there’s something else as well. The sense of something that’s “not quite right,” even if we don’t know what it is, or we aren’t aware of a clear and present threat. The sense of something… spooky.

The music composed by Juilliard-trained Mark Snow (1946- ) portrays numerous emotions. This is especially true in the “mytharc” episodes, which typically focus on the characters’ personal lives, as well as the eventual revelation of an international conspiracy of (mostly) men complicit in making a Mephistophelian bargain with extraterrestrial colonists, or whatever direction the show meandered into after several seasons. With the necessities of a quick turnaround time for a weekly series, Snow drew upon the less logistically challenging tool of a synthesizer to convey the more “ambient” atmosphere initially desired for the show. Nonetheless, Snow mentioned in an interview that, as the series progressed, he wanted to lend the series a more “orchestral” sensibility, while still using a synthesizer for the same practical reasons (Goldwasser 1998). Given that this posting focuses on “spookiness,” though, it seems more suitable to zero in on how Snow developed two main themes underscore this aspect. More specifically, the one-off theme used in the closing credits of the pilot episode (which, unfortunately, can’t be found on YouTube), as well as the more iconic Materia Primoris (known colloquially as “The X-Files Theme”).

The X-Files pilot episode, which premiered on 10 September 1993, contains two standard elements that would appear in practically every episode: a teaser that establishes the case of the week (with slight variations in the so-called mythology episodes), followed by the appearance of Scully and Mulder discussing the case, whether in Mulder’s basement office in the J. Edgar Hoover Building, or upon arriving at the proverbial scene of the crime. However, it lacks opening credits and a main musical theme. A likely candidate appears in the end credits, however, after the cigarette smoking “dark father” (William B. Davis) of the series salts away evidence from the pair’s first investigation in an unassuming storage facility within the Pentagon. The theme begins with a somewhat high-pitched single note that simulates a string instrument. After a few seconds, a dissonant piano chords breaks the near-silence, softly echoing as its fades into the ether. A similar effect appears a few more times, in slightly different keys to add to the tension.

While nothing “happens” within the music, it remains unsettling at the very least, almost conveying a sense of quiet existential dread in its lack of resolution, or even of a “confident” starting point. It seems to portray a cold universe with beings that are, if not hostile, at least antipathetic to our well-being… “intellects vast and cool and unsympathetic,” as H.G. Wells described the Martians that invaded Earth in his 1898 novel War of the Worlds. And where the very agencies that are supposed to protect us are more concerned with covering up their own role in whatever is happening, most likely due to their own impotence.

In some ways, the almost toxic-sounding closing credit theme portrays a more abstract “feeling,” and not so much a motif to announce the appearance of a character, or to portray a particular thing or concept. This very fine distinction isn’t always easy to parse out, given that a motif can carry with it feelings as well, depending on how a musician manipulates its pitch, tempo, orchestration, and the like. However, as a rule of thumb, one would hear a motif in John Williams’ scores for the Star Wars films (which, of course, have a musical genealogy going back at least to Richard Wagner’s operas); among numerous others, there are definite themes for The Force and Darth Vader (“The Imperial March”). Here are some deeply contrasting variations on the latter, just to underscore the point:

Snow’s method of portraying “feeling” shares greater affinities with the film scores of Bernard Herrmann (1911-1975), who focused relatively more on affect (whether psychological or physiological), and not nearly so much on portraying specific “things.” Herrmann’s best-known snippet of music is likely from the infamous shower scene in Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho (1960), certainly enhancing one of the most merciless moments of terror committed to film (despite our tendency to use it casually as a signifier for people we perceive as blowing small things way out of proportion).

While Herrmann portrays abject fear, Snow more or less takes the same approach in the pilot episode’s closing theme, but (to me at least) more closely conveys a sense of “spookiness” instead. Some might say horror or terror or fear, which could be right as well. I would argue, however, that nothing is actually “happening” in the same sense as in the Psycho shower scene; hence, “spookiness,” or perhaps the other vague portent of “dread.” That said, it’s useful to note the broader affinities between the two. In an interview (Pertout 1998) given prior to the release of the first X-Files movie (Fight the Future), Snow mentions Herrmann first among film composers as an influence on his own work, along with a number of 20th century composers whose works are almost exclusively for orchestral and vocal performances, and not specifically for film or teevee. A comparative analysis of their music alongside Snow’s X-Files work would likely constitute a posting in itself, but I can attest that I have picked up definite affinities with Béla Bartók (1882-1945) and Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951). Interestingly, I finally started listening to the works of Alban Berg (1885-1935), a student of Schoenberg, around the same time I watched X-Files initially, and I made my own personal connections there as well; more specifically, with the first movement of the concert suite for Berg’s opera Lulu (which he left uncompleted upon his death):

It seems most suitable to focus on Schoenberg in particular, given that his apparent influence on Snow ties in with the nature of The X-Files. Schoenberg is perhaps best known for “atonal” compositions that, to the uninitiated (and perhaps even the initiated), sounds like “a bunch of noise” and “wrong notes” thrown together. There is a method to the apparent madness, however, as such works deliberately have no central “home” key, with no perceived sense of tension, release, and resolution. Or, perhaps to many ears, there only tends to be tension, enhanced by simultaneously playing notes whose intervals create psychologically and physically “unpleasant” sensations.

It comes as no surprise, then, that Schoenberg’s works can create unease among listeners who are used to hearing music that has tension, release, and resolution, which pretty much everyone listens to regularly, whether Romantic pieces by Johannes Brahms or Top 40 Hits. For a more detailed, but still accessible, discussion of atonality, as well as the contexts that made Schoenberg see its development as a “necessity,” Alex Ross’ 2007 book The Rest Is Noise provides a helpful introduction (pp. 55-61).

Schoenberg was known as an iconoclast, but, as Ross points out:

In a way, Schoenberg was most persuasive in justifying his early atonal works when he emphasized their illogical, irrational dimension. As far as we can tell, he composed them in something like an automatic state, sketching the hyperdense Erwartung (or “Expectation”) in only seventeen days (2007, 57).

Perhaps for the aforementioned reasons, it’s a technique that composers for film and television have drawn upon for years. In particular for anything that has a sense of terror, horror, fear, spookiness, or whatever other similar adjectives one might use. Or, as Ross points out, “horror movies need atonality as they need shadows on the walls of alleys” (2007, 35). Perhaps, then, a context is necessary in order for broader audiences to make sense (inasmuch as they’re able to) of atonal composition techniques.

Herrmann brought Schoenbergian techniques to mainstream culture many years ago, once again most notably in Psycho. Approximately 40 minutes into this wonderful documentary on the composer (even if it spends an inordinate amount of time on Psycho at the expense of other great stuff by Herrmann), Howard Goodall discusses this aspect:

So there’s a direct lineage of Schoenberg’s influence on Snow, and likely some degree of indirect influence through Herrmann. At least, one can find affinities in that relatively obscure closing theme for the pilot episode. What better than uncertainty in the identity of a “home key” to portray uncertainty more broadly? To portray, so to speak, “alienation.” Perhaps even “spookiness.”

One final interesting footnote before moving on to the theme “everyone” knows from The X-Files. In October and November 1973, during his time as Charles Eliot Norton Professor of Poetry at Harvard, Leonard Bernstein gave a series of six talks about music under the broad title The Unanswered Question. In the fifth lecture, which spends some time on Schoenberg’s contribution to “The Twentieth Century Crisis” in music, Bernstein happens to mention a couple of works that seem to have some connections with X-Files-ish themes. They include Schoenberg’s Second String Quartet (1908), his “renunciation of tonality” whose final movement consists of the words (roughly translated), “I feel air from another planet.”

Regarding Pierrot Lunaire (1912), a cycle of 21 songs by Schoenberg, Bernstein refers to it as “the clincher… that wild and spine-chilling masterpiece of Expressionism.” What’s more, Bernstein describes Schoenberg’s usage of Sprechstimme (wherein singers start to sing a note, but let it fall or rise to make it sound like everyday speech) as a “blow at tonality, and lends a new spookiness to the music.” Carrying on the vaguely extraterrestrial (and spooky) theme, Bernstein mentions Der Kranke Mond (“The Sick Moon”) as an example.

It’s perhaps not too distant from the opening of Richard Strauss’ opera Salome (1905), a relatively more tonal opera from just a few years before, with its own air of initial spookiness and lunar-kissed decadence presaging something vaguely horrific (the spooky opening begins around 1:25; just the first one or two minutes from that point are necessary to get the effect).

As well, Bernstein mentions a direct antecedent to both, noting offhand how the opening notes from Der Kranke Mond sound like the opening from the Prelude to Wagner’s headily erotic and spiritual opera Tristan und Isolde.

In the second episode of The X-Files, “Deep Throat,” Mulder meets a more or less friendly eponymous “insider” contact (Jerry Hardin), whose codename evokes strong associations with the Nixonian America of series creator Carter’s (and Mulder’s) formative years. Also appearing for the first in time after the “teaser” is Materia Primoris, better known as the iconic “X-Files Theme.” Like its single episode predecessor, this piece conveys an air of spookiness itself. And yet, it doesn’t have the same menace as the theme from the end of the first episode. There’s perhaps a sense of optimism, too. That, as the show’s tagline states, “The Truth Is out There,” and that it might be found as one whistles in the dark.

After being plunged into a sonic space amidst enigmatic synthesizer sounds, some of which more or less resemble the unresolved echoing piano chords in the end credits of the first episode, one hears variations on a theme that consists of six “whistling” notes. This seems to signify a sense of mystery, and our own dialogue with things that we have difficulty explaining, or even conceptualizing, in part due to the limitations of (1) our personal frames of reference and (2) “official” received narratives, handed down to us by religious and secular high priesthoods. Whether or not the six note theme “resolves” is up for debate, although I suppose musicologists would have more of a definitive answer. Certainly, compared to the theme from the first episode, there’s a relatively greater sense of resolution. However, the last of the six notes also makes it come across as a question: “The truth is out there,” followed by an ambiguous, “Yes?” But, again, an echoing note seems to follow each variation as a form of negation, and the search for the truth begins again. Rephrased, perhaps, but again with a six note theme.

At the end, another variation on the whistling theme starts again, but stops on the second note, which is sustained until it is negated as well.

And the story recommences.

Interestingly, despite using techniques that tend to eschew motif, Snow mentions in the Pertout interview that Materia Primoris does appear as a motif after all in Fight the Future (which also consists of an orchestra for the soundtrack).

The other thing that is interesting and different is that the X-Files theme with the whistling is never used in the TV show as background music, and in the film score it’s used quite a bit, where the orchestra plays it with different harmonies, and you know, fast and slow, and sad, dangerous, different variations of it. So that turned out to be the theme of the movie score, but never used in the TV show. (1998)

Perhaps it’s a motif for “the search for the truth,” and all that comes with it, including the sense of uncertainty?

Naturally, the whole notion of “spookiness” is subjective, but the lineage of how it’s likely notated (as exemplified by the German tradition through Schoenberg, and filtered through Snow’s work on The X-Files) remains an interesting realm to explore. But what is it that makes certain music that way? One can claim that Materia Primoris is spooky due to its inseparable associations with The X-Files, but that’s actually an extramusical connection. More to the point, what makes the music itself that way? Is it inherent, culturally conditioned, or both? Or, what tools and techniques in a musician’s “toolbox” help with crafting such music? What amalgamations of keys, chords, melodic structures, and other musical facets create such an effect? Also, how does one distinguish “spooky” from other similar terms in describing music? Perhaps it’s for this reason that formal subject headings (as one finds in library catalogues) for sound recordings tend to focus primarily on genre, but not on what music is “about.”

With the ubiquity of tagging in numerous sites that provide and / or describe musical content, one can at least make some assumptions about the intersubjective notion of what constitutes “spookiness.” The truth may be out there, but it might take on many forms, inadequately described by the terminology we use, as Elaine Svenonius (1994) points out, regarding non-text things. For the phenomena we observe and attempt to categorize in the “everyday world,” and perhaps beyond.